TIMELINE: 1960s Liberation Theology Writings and Relevant Works

1960

Africa:

  • Albert Geyser, gives a scathing critique of apartheid and its theological justification – exemplified in A.B. du Preez “Eiesoortige Ontwikkeling tot Volksdiens” – in the NHK journal Hervormde Teologiese Studies.
  • Albert Geyser, Vertraagde aksie (Delayed Action), condemning apartheid.

1961

Americas:

  • Edmundo O’Gorman, The Invention of the Americas, Indiana University Press, first to reflect on 1492 as the invention of America.

Europe:

  • Frantz Fanon, Les Demnés de la Terre
    (relevant to Americas (see Martinique, and Africa (see Algeria), and global colonialism)

Oceania:

  • T.G.H. Stehlow, Nomads in No-Man’s Land. Adelaide: Aborigines Advancement League.

1962

Africa:

  • Albert Lutuli, Let My People Go: “I warn those who care for Christianity, who care to go to all the world and preach the Gospel. In South Africa the opportunity is 300 years old. It will not last forever. The time is running out.” [p. 19, qtd in Walshe, The Evolution of Liberation Theology in South Africa
  • Pro Veritate. ecumenical and anti-apartheid journal.

Americas:

  • Juan Luis Segundo, Función de la Iglesia en la Realidad Rioplatense.
  • Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Prophets
  • G.E. Mendenhall, The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine, in Biblical Archaeologist 25:66-87
  • Austin Farrer, Love Almighty and Ill Unlimited, Fontana Library of Theology and Philosophy, Collins Fontana 1966. “Sensitive discussion of the issues raised for theodicy by animal pain. Contains his famous line: ‘It must never be forgotten that God is the God of hawks no less than of sparrows, of microbes not less than of men’ (pp. 104-5)” (Linzey).

1963

Americas:

  • Juan Luis Segundo, The Future of Christianity in Latin America.

Europe:

  • Paul Gauthier, Les Pauvres Jésus et l’Eglise (Ed. Universitaires, Paris).

1964

Africa:

  • A series of articles by Prof. Adriaan Pont appear in Die Hervormer, the NHK monthly magazine, accusing Geyser and Naudé of advocating: communism, sabotage, revolution, massacres of white women and children, heresy, opposition to the Afrikaaner churches, the destruction of Christianity while pretending to be Christians.

Americas:

  • L’Arche community founded by Jean Vanier in Canada.

1965

Global:

  • We Won’t Keep Silence Any Longer: Women Speak Out to Vatican Council II.

Africa:

  • Bolaji Idowu, Towards An Indigenous Church

Asia:

  • Ahn Byung Mu presents dissertation in Heidelberg after studying alongside Gunther Bornkamm since 1956.

1966

Americas:

  • Gustavo Gutierrez, Christian Charity and Love, his first published book.

Europe:

  • Roger Garaudy, From Anathema to Dialogue, English edition

1967

Global:

  • Paul VI’s encyclical Populorum progressio

Americas:

  • Paulo Freire, Educaçáo como Práctica da Liberdade, Rio de Janeiro
  • José Míguez Bonino, La fe en busca de eficacia
  • Rosemary Radford-Ruether, The Church Against Itself
  • Ivan Illich, a manifesto named A Call to Celebration, “enunciated by and reflecting the mood of a group of friends” including Robert Fox and Robert Theobald, during the March on the Pentagon.

Europe:

  • Jürgen Moltmann, Theology of Hope: On the Ground and the Implications for a Christian Eschatology, London: SCM.
  • Dorothee Sölle, Christ the Representative: An Essay in Theology After the ‘Death of God’

1968

Americas:

  • Mary Daly, The Church and the Second Sex
  • Ivan Illich, Violence: A Mirror for Americans, first published in America, 27thApril, on the “fear that the end of the war in Vietnam would permit the hawks and doves to unite in a destructive war on poverty in the Third World.”
  • T. Ogletree (ed) Openings for Marxist-Christian Dialogue, Nashville

Europe:

  • Johannes Baptiste-Metz, Poverty of Spirit

1969

Africa:

  • John Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy

Americas:

  • Paulo Freire, Extensión y Comunicacion, Santiago de Chile
  • Rubem Alves, Religion: Opium of the People or Instrument of Liberation.
  • James H Cone, Black Theology and Black Power
  • Vine Deloria, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto

Europe:

  • Jurgen Moltmann, Religion, Revolution and Future
  • Ans Joachim van der Bent, The Christian Marxist Dialogue: 1959-1969, in Geneva.
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